The only thing here that really surprises me is that molluscs are higher mass than I expected, and nematodes lower mass.
6 hours ago
Consciousness and how it got to be that way
Person P believes fact X.
Q believes not-X.
In reality, not-X is true. (That is to say, P violates naive theory of lying Bad Assumption #1 - identical agency.)
Not only is Q quite confident that not-X is true, but they quite clearly understand that P believes X, and for bad reasons.
Q tells P fact Y (which is true!), knowing full well that this will cause P, based on P's false belief of X, to perform action A, which harms P. (Or, Q just makes no effort to convince P that not-X, allowing the false belief to stand.) (Bad Assumption #2 violated - moral isolation of speech from other actions.)
Q (who in this scenario is a better person) does try to convince P that not-X.
P refuses to believe Q despite Q giving good reasons.
Q recognizes P's false belief structure, and understands that by telling untrue fact Z to P, P will make a choice in their best interest, owing to their distorted beliefs.
Q tells fact Z to P - that is, Q lies to P - and P makes a better decision than if Q had told P the truth.
P knows that Q intends to harm them.
Q's harming them requires information about P, provided by P.
P tells C to Q, knowing that not-C is actually correct. P lies to Q with the intention of protecting themselves or others.
Let us suppose that the great empire of China, with all its myriads of inhabitants, was suddenly swallowed up by an earthquake, and let us consider how a man of humanity in Europe, who had no sort of connection with that part of the world, would be affected upon receiving intelligence of this dreadful calamity. He would, I imagine, first of all, express very strongly his sorrow for the misfortune of that unhappy people, he would make many melancholy reflections upon the precariousness of human life, and the vanity of all the labours of man, which could thus be annihilated in a moment. He would too, perhaps, if he was a man of speculation, enter into many reasonings concerning the effects which this disaster might produce upon the commerce of Europe, and the trade and business of the world in general. And when all this fine philosophy was over, when all these humane sentiments had been once fairly expressed, he would pursue his business or his pleasure, take his repose or his diversion, with the same ease and tranquillity, as if no such accident had happened. The most frivolous disaster which could befall himself would occasion a more real disturbance. If he was to lose his little finger to-morrow, he would not sleep to-night; but, provided he never saw them, he will snore with the most profound security over the ruin of a hundred millions of his brethren, and the destruction of that immense multitude seems plainly an object less interesting to him, than this paltry misfortune of his own. To prevent, therefore, this paltry misfortune to himself, would a man of humanity be willing to sacrifice the lives of a hundred millions of his brethren, provided he had never seen them? Human nature startles with horror at the thought, and the world, in its greatest depravity and corruption, never produced such a villain as could be capable of entertaining it.- Part III, the Theory of Moral Sentiments, Adam Smith
|HARDCORE FAN||CASUAL FAN|
|motivated by moral foundations||by utility calculations|
|end in themselves||deliberate, external goal-oriented|
|higher value on loyalty||lower value on loyalty|
|adopted in childhood, maybe from family||adopted voluntarily in adulthood|
|central to identity||not central to identity|
|unwilling or unable to verbalize||position clearly verbalized|
|more often encountered in person||more often encountered online|
|sees casual fans as untrustworthy, sleazy||sees hardcore fans as stupid, gullible|